The People Index Of the people, by the people, for the people Manual, How to produce a new case study, Comparative Results; Germany, Finnland, USA, Saudi-Arabia, NS-System)   From two-pole to three-pole thinking Political systems usually have been measured by two-pole indices of autocracy and democracy. These indices, such as the Democracy Index, the Freedom House Index, Polity IV, or the Vanhanen Index,  correspond with the following model. Figure 1: The two-pole model of political systems

According to this model, a political system is an autocracy

(dictatorship), a democracy, or a hybrid between these two

system types. Indices refer to participation (Democracy

Index, Vanhanen Index) or to participation and human

rights (Freedom House, Polity IV).

As clear this model appears to be, it does not take

essential output features of political systems, such as 

peace and welfare, into account. So if an intervention

aiming at democracy results in an endurant civil war - see

the US military intervention in Iraq 2003- , a fatal third

system type, anomy, is given. That’s why indexing of

political systems should change from the outlined two-pole

model to a three-pole model that comprises autocracy,

democracy, and anomy (see figure 2).

Figure 2: The three-pole model of political systems                       Democracy       Autocracy   Anomy                                                                                                     

Following this model, any political entity may be

understood and measured as more or less democratic,

autocratic, or anomic. Any graduation and mixture can be

registered within the shown triangle.

The People Index

Starting from the described three-pole model, we have

developed a quality index of political systems, The People

Index. Main indicators of this index are: A) Respect for the

people, B) Participation by the people, C) Coordination for

the people. These indicators are surveyed by answering

the following questions:

A) Respect 1. Are all inhabitants respected as free and equal citizens? 2. Are fair and free procedures common? 3. Are all international borders respected? B) Participation 1. May the people elect and recall their government? 2. May the people participate in current decision-making? 3. How representative are the people’s representations? C) Coordination 1. Is there guaranteed peace? 2. Is the public infrastructure sufficiently fostered? 3. Is the economy well coordinated? 4. How equally are the incomes distributed? 5. Is health effectively protected? 6. Are qualification and education, research & development well managed? 7. Ecological and financial sustainability

Based on all reachable information, each question

is to be answered as well as possible coming to a

score between 0 and 100 (%). The answers are to

be worked out in a more and more substantiated

and differentiated way, open to the public

discussion. That’s why The People Index is a public


The sources of all used data shall be be cited.

The scores for each question are simply summed

up and divided by the number of scores without any

difference of weighting according to the following




    =   Score A





    =   Score B




-----------------------------------   =   Score C




The scores of the three main indicators mark the

principal system qualities of the evaluated entities

(such as countries):

If all three scores account for more than

66,66%, a country is evaluated as democracy. Vice

versa: Once only one system function is scored

lower than 66,66%, no democracy is given. That’s

why the two thirds line denotes a democracy


If all scores account for less than 33,33%, the

country is evaluated as anomy.

If at least one score out of the scores for

respect and participation lies below 33,33% and the

score for coordination lies above this line, the entity

is classified as autocracy.

Between these system types, individually aligned

hybrids are sorted.

Within the principal system types of democracy,

autocracy, and anomy, gradations are possible. So

a democracy that shows much lower scores for

respect and participation than for coordination may

be classified as relatively autocratic. Autocracies

and anomies, in turn, may show more or less

extreme values of certain indicators, for instance a

value approaching 0 for respect of the people.

Institutions are only indirectly relevant by influencing

the established function respect of, participation by,

coordination for the people. The People Index is

about political system functions.

By iteratively using the index, the qualitative

development of evaluated entities, such as certain

countries, can be shown. By relating the index to

different countries, those countries may compared

with each other regarding their system qualities.

So far we have applied The People Index to four

current cases, Germany, USA, Finland, and Saudi

Arabia, as well as to one historic case, National

Socialism (Germany between 1933 and 1945). You

find, aside of case studies, comparative results on

these cases.

If you ‘d like to criticise any given evaluation, to

propose alternatives or new subjects of evaluation -

just write us ( 

IPA Institute for Political Analysis Prof. Dr. Volker von Prittwitz