How to explain barbarity? 3: Integration and Migration
While failed states do not fulfill basic state functions, normal states meet those functions to varying degrees. At it, the degree of integration is particularly precarious regarding the possible triggering of barbarity. Integration means that different and/or marginal entities are sustainably  and effectively included into a whole. Integrated  individuals and groups feel bound to general norms of a society and identify at least basically with that society.  A lack or complete failure of integration, in contrast, means that formal members of a society do not feel being part of the whole; hence they are no active members of it unless they have been forced to it, or they even feel being in contradiction to the society and its regular members. Migration and Integration Migration does not regularly hamper integration; in the contrary, migrants often try to do their very best to establish themselves in a new society. Even distinct cultural differences - although being a particular challenge - are no necessary impediment for integration. Indeed, the fact that a high percentage of islamist terrorists are migrants of the first, second, or third generation leads to a specific, very consequential risk of failing integration: Objectively or subjectively marginalized individuals and groups sometimes develop radical identification patterns against the pluralistic society (anti- social identity) - basis for war-like thinking and behavior up to barbarity.
Religion in general does not linearly correlate with the development of social anti-identity - since there are also forms of distinct civil religion; even religions that claim absolute power such as certain variants of Islam do not necessarily imply anti-identity-building. Indeed, (at least) subjectively marginalized individuals and groups obviously tend to use religion, particularly power-oriented religion like aggressive Islam variants, as a welcome instrument of psycological stabilization for developing social anti-identities. Insofar social marginalization and power-oriented religion constitute a very precarious combination.        The significant and increasing emergence of that combination may result from three factors: 1) the way open societies deal with migrants - leading to the problem of practical, at least subjective marginalization; 2) the way migrants build their identities, 3) the usability and concrete offers of certain religious branches to get used for anti-social identity-building.